Prejudice and Discrimination
Saul McLeod published 2008
Prejudice is an unjustified or incorrect attitude (usually negative) towards an individual based solely on the individual’s membership of a social group.
For example, a person may hold prejudiced views towards a certain race or gender etc. (e.g. sexist).
Discrimination is the behavior or actions, usually negative, towards an individual or group of people, especially on the basis of sex/race/social class, etc.
The Difference Between Prejudice and Discrimination
A prejudiced person may not act on their attitude. Therefore, someone can be prejudiced towards a certain group but not discriminate against them. Also, prejudice includes all three components of an attitude (affective, behavioral and cognitive), whereas discrimination just involves behavior.
There are four main explanations of prejudice and discrimination:
1. Authoritarian Personality
2. Realistic Conflict Theory - Robbers Cave
4. Social identity Theory
Conformity could also be used as an explanation of prejudice if you get stuck writing a psychology essay (see below).
Examples of Discrimination
Apartheid (literally "separateness") was a system of racial segregation that was enforced in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. Non-white people where prevented from voting and lived in separate communities.
World War II - In Germany and German-controlled lands, Jewish people had to wear yellow stars to identify themselves as Jews. Later, the Jews were placed in concentration camps by the Nazis.
This is a type of discrimination against a person or group on the grounds of age.
In Western societies while women are often discriminated against in the workplace, men are often discriminated against in the home and family environments.
For instance after a divorce women receive primary custody of the children far more often than men. Women on average earn less pay than men for doing the same job.
Conformity as an Explanation of Prejudice and Discrimination
Influences that cause individuals to be racist or sexist, for example, may come from peers parents and group membership. Conforming to social norms means people adopt the “normal” set of behavior(s) associated with a particular group or society.
Social norms - behavior considered appropriate within a social group - are one possible influence on prejudice and discrimination. People may have prejudiced beliefs and feelings and act in a prejudiced way because they are conforming to what is regarded as normal in the social groups to which they belong:
The effect of Social Norms on Prejudice
Minard (1952) investigated how social norms influence prejudice and discrimination. The behavior of black and white miners in a town in the southern United States was observed, both above and below ground.
Results: Below ground, where the social norm was friendly behavior towards work colleagues, 80 of the white miners were friendly towards the black miners. Above ground, where the social norm was prejudiced behavior by whites to blacks, this dropped to 20.
Conclusion: The white miners were conforming to different norms above and below ground. Whether or not prejudice is shown depends on the social context within which behavior takes place.
Pettigrew (1959) also investigated the role of conformity in prejudice. He investigated the idea that people who tended to be more conformist would also be more prejudiced, and found this to be true of white South African students. Similarly, he accounted for the higher levels of prejudice against black people in the southern United States than in the north in terms of the greater social acceptability of this kind of prejudice in the south.
A study by Rogers and Frantz (1962) found that immigrants to Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) became more prejudiced the longer they had been in the country. They gradually conformed more to the prevailing cultural norm of prejudice against the black population.
Evaluation: Conformity to social norms, then, may offer an explanation for prejudice in some cases. At the same time, norms change over time, so this can only go some way towards explaining prejudice.
Minard, R. D. (1952). Race relationships in the Pocahontas coal field. Journal of Social Issues, 8(1), 29-44.
Pettigrew, T. F. (1959). Regional differences in anti-Negro prejudice. Journal of abnormal psychology, 59(1), 28.
Rogers, C. A., & Frantz, C. (1962). Racial themes in Southern Rhodesia: the attitudes and behavior of the white population (p. 338). New Haven: Yale University Press.
How to reference this article:
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Prejudice and discrimination. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/prejudice.html
Stereotypes, Discrimination and Prejudice Essay
1506 Words7 Pages
Stereotypes, Discrimination and Prejudice
If a young girl is walking alone through a park late at night and encounters three senior citizens walking with canes and three teenage boys wearing leather jackets, it is likely that she will feel threatened by the latter and not the former. Why is this so? To start off, we have made a generalization in each case. By stereotyping, we assume that a person or group has certain characteristics. Often, these stereotypical generalizations are not accurate. We are succumbing to prejudice by ?ascribing characteristics about a person based on a stereotype, without knowledge of the total facts?1.
Usually, we have stereotypes about persons who are members of groups with which we have not had…show more content…
Often times, these judgments can be false and lead to ?unfair discrimination and persecution?3. We are engaging in discrimination when we judge people and groups based on our stereotypes and treat them differently. The most prominent victims of discrimination are women and minorities who are often deprived of education, employment and social services. Some prejudice views have been passed down from generation to generation such as prejudice against Jews, called anti-Semitism, which has been recognized for more than two thousand years. In other cases, however, these views are created and promoted by ?charismatic leaders who exploit latent hatreds for their own political ends?4. These leaders are called "demagogues"5 and rely on propaganda and disinformation to achieve their goals. Propaganda is the information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause and often intentionally influences attitudes and opinions. Through the use of propaganda techniques, such stereotypical and ?persuasive arguments are made that one group or another is to blame for all of our problems?6. Therefore, stereotypes also play a key role in media propaganda not just locally, but nationally and globally as well.
One of the major examples is the September 11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York. Ever since then, the United States has been on a mission to end terrorism around the world and their